FLY is an insect of the Diptera that has a pair of blue wings
in the form of a membrane. All parts of the house fly body can act as a disease transmitter (body, fur on hands and feet, stool and vomit).
Dirty and smelly environmental conditions can be an excellent
place for growth and breeding for house flies.
Age of house flies between 1-2 months and there are 6 months to 1 year. During the life cycle the house fly has 4 stages.
- First, the egg stage. The stadium is 12-24 hours long. The shape of oval eggs round white. Large eggs 1-2 mm. Eggs are removed by females at once as many as 100-150 eggs. In hot and humid droppings are factors that can affect the duration of this stage. The hotter the faster, the cooler the slower.
- Second, the stage of larvae. This larvae stage there are three levels.
(a) After leaving the egg has not moved much.
(b) Adult rate, many moves.
(c) The last level, not much movement. If we look further, this larvae is rounded with yellowish and grayish white, has a segment of 13 and length 18 mm. These larvae always move and eat from the organic materials contained in the vicinity. At the last level (c) the larvae move from a dry place to a cool place. To turn into a cocoon
the duration of this stage 2-8 days or 2-5 days depending on the local temperature. The larvae are easily killed with temperature 73oC.
- Third, the pupa stage. The duration of this stage 2-8 days or depending on the local temperature. The shape is rounded oval with a dark brown color. This stadium is less moving or not moving at all. The length is approximately 5 mm. Having a hard external membrane is called a posteroor spiracle that is useful for determining its type.
- Fourth, adult stage. This stage is the last stage that has the
form of insect flies. From egg stadium to adult stage takes
7 days or more depending on circumstances and flies.
Usually 8-20 days.
Control of flies:
In general, flies mating occurs on the 2nd day until the 12th day after coming out of the cocoon. Two to three days later after new mating lay eggs that once lay 100-150 eggs and each female can
spawn 4-5 times in his or her lifetime. The main food is liquid goods . There is a sugar substance, meanwhile for hard objects thawed first with saliva water so it can be sucked. At meal times it often spews some food. Thus, it allows for the spread of disease germs.
Efforts to control flies can be done in several ways:
First, environmental improvement efforts , especially through waste disposal that meet health requirements . This effort aims to prevent the occurrence of fly nests.
Second, biological control efforts. This effort is done by sterilizing the male flies, with the aim that the fly when the marriage will be produced sterile eggs. This method can only be done in the laboratory.
Third, the control effort using insect poison. Insect poisons
can be distinguished by their entrance. (a) Stomach poison (stomach poison). Insecticides of this type enter into the body of insects through the mouth or inedible. Usually this insecticide is used for insects that have a mouth bite tool , sticking suction and form of suction. (b) Contact poison. This type of insecticide enters the insect body through a spiraling apparatus or through an integument into the blood. In general, this type of insecticide is used for insects that have a mouth shape suction puncture. (c) Fumigans (respiratory toxins). Insecticides of this type enter into the body of insects through the respiratory system in the form of
spiracles on the surface of the body, usually this type of insecticide is
used for insects that are not dependent on the shape of the mouth.
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What is flavonoids?
The sweet orange (Citrus aurantinum) comes from northeastern India, southern China, northern Burma, and Vietnam. At the present time sweet orange has been widely grown in the tropics and subtropics. Sweet oranges are generally grown in areas of 20- 40
LU, and 20-40 LS, while around the equator can be planted to a
height of 2,000 m above sea level. Optimal temperature growth
The oranges grow older, their sugar content is growing, but the
acid content is decreasing. The sweet lemon fruit directly exposed to the sun will contain more sugar, but also its vitamin C
content . Amino acids are compounds that can be a protein structure. During fruit development, amino acid content varies quantitatively and qualitatively. Citric acid content of citrus sweet at the time of young enough, but after ripe fruit decreases. The citric acid content of sweetened citrus valencia that has been cooked will be reduced to two thirds. Sweet citrus fruit juice contains malic acid 1,4-1,8 mgm per liter. Flavonoid is one type of poison / aleopathy compound found in sweet orange peel, a compound of glucoside consisting of sugar that is bound to flavon. Flavonoids do not feel like hesperidin, while limonine causes bitter taste. Flavonoids are one of the largest natural phenol groups. The flavonoid group includes many of the most common pigments and are present throughout the plant world from fungus to angiosperms. The flavonoid group can be described as a series of C6-C3-C6 compounds meaning its carbon skeleton consists of two C6 groups (substituted benzene rings) connected by a third carbonic aliphatic chain. Flavonoids have a distinctive characteristic of a very sharp odor, most of which are yellow pigments, water soluble and organic solvents, easily decomposed at high temperatures.
Flavonoids have a number of uses:
- First, against plants, namely as a regulator of plants, regulator of photosynthesis, antimiroba and antiviral work.
- Second, against humans, namely as antibiotics against cancer and
kidney, inhibits bleeding.
- Third, against insects, namely as an attraction of insects to pollinate. Fourth, another usefulness is as an active ingredient in the manufacture of vegetable insecticides from sweet orange peel.
As a vegetable insecticide, here flavonoids enter the insect’s mouth
(house fly) through the respiratory system in the form of a spiracle on the surface of the body and cause wilting on the nerves, as well as damage to the spiracles consequently can not breathe and eventually die.
Finally, it is not excessive when we use as a natural insecticide
to suppress the population of the fly is a sweet orange peel. Because, on the skin of sweet orange when processed can be obtained hesperidin and flavonoid compounds. Precisely, from sweet orange peel can be obtained three types of pigments or dyes ie xanthophyll, violaxanthin, and flavonoids. Well, this flavonoid content that has insecticidal properties.